Hello aspirants. In this detailed article of Indian Polity Preparation, we will see answers to Indian Polity Conceptual Questions which were asked on our social media platforms. Along with this, we will also include those Indian Polity Videos, Indian Polity Notes, Indian Polity MCQ’s and much more material related to “Indian Polity” which will add value in your Competitive exam preparation.
Indian Polity is considered as the most basic and equally important subject for all competitive exams. This subject of ‘Indian Polity’ seems to be very easy to read and understand, but due to lack of conceptual clarity, aspirants fail to solve Indian Polity MCQ with accuracy. So, on this platform, we will make sure that all your Indian Polity Questions will be solved through various Questions. These Polity questions are selected in such a way that it needs conceptual clarity to attempt them.
I will recommend you to try each question on your own and then see the Solutions for more clarity. Our Thinking Process must develop!
Indian Polity Questions
Question 1: What is the Difference Between Republic and Democracy?
Answer: Let us first understand the basics of two terms:
- Republic: a state in which supreme power is in the hands of people or their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch
- Democracy: a system of government formed by the whole population (people) typically through elected representatives.
Democractic Country (Democracy) can be a Republic or even Monarch.
For Example, Indian is a Democratic as well as the Republic Country. While the United Kingdom is Democracy and Monarchy (not Republic)
So, major thing to distinguish is the process of election of the head of state. If he is elected by people, then its republic. And if this post is hereditary, then its monarchy.
Question 2: Give 5 Differences Between Presidential System and Parliamentary System?
Answer: 5 Major Differences between Parliamentary and Presidential form of Government are:
- In the Presidential form of government, there is the separation of power between the executive and legislative. In Presidential form, there exists fusion of power.
- Presidential form of government is more stable (but more prone to be converted into dictatorship)
- Parliamentary form of Government is more Representative and more Democratic (Ex: India)
- In the Presidential form of government, the head of state and head of government is the same (Not in Parliamentary system!)
- Parliamentary form of government is based on ‘Collective Responsibility‘– Cabinet Form of Government
There are thousands of factual differences, but these 5 are more conceptual and every aspirant must know while studying Indian Polity.
Question 3: Explain Habeas Corpus in simple terms and give some examples of Habeas Corpus
Definition: a writ requiring a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court (and specify the reasons of his arrest), especially to secure the person’s release unless lawful grounds are shown for their detention.
Example: If you file a petition with the court because you want to be brought before a judge where the reason for your arrest and detention must be specified
(Read it in detail from M Laxmikanth Book)
Question 4: Explain different types of Majority (Simple, Special, Effective and Absolute Majority)
You need to understand Simple, Effective, and Absolute Majority. Rest all majority comes under a special majority (There is no single type of special majority)
Question 5: Explain and give the difference between Delegation, Devolution and Decentralization
Answer: All the 3 terms are related to the distribution of powers
- Delegation- Power given by the executive order (this power can be easily taken back)
- Devolution- Power which is given through Law made in the Legislature. (To take away the power, we need to change the law)
- Decentralization- Power that comes from the Constitution (Strongest Power). Example: Power of Centre and States in India are derived from Constitution!
Question 6: Explain and give the difference between Socialism, Fabian Socialism and Communism
- Definition of Socialism: a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole (no private entity)
- Communism: Socialism given by Karl Marx is called Communism. (Violent and aggressive means – Red Revolutions)
- Fabian Socialism: Non-destructive and mild form of socialism (socialism followed by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru)
Question 7: Explain and give the difference between Federation and Confederation
Answer: Federation and Confederation are types of unions.
- Federation: It is indestructible union. For Example: United States of America which is a union of states which do not have the right to secede.
- Confederation: It is destructible union. For Example: Former USSR
Question 8: What is Special Majority? Explain different types of Special Majorities specified in Indian Constitution
Answer: There are basically 4 types of Majorities:
- Simple Majority
- Effective Majority
- Special Majority
- Absolute Majority
We have discussed Simple, Effective and Absolute Majority in the above question. So, majority other than Simple, Effective and Absolute Majority is called as Special Majority.
There are 3 types of special majority:
- 2/3rd of member present and voting (For eg: Majority Needed in Article 249, Art. 312)
- Special Majority required for Amendment of Constitution (Article 368) and Removal for Judges of Supreme Court
- 2/3rd of Members Present and Voting (+) 50 percent+1 of Total Membership
3) Majority needed in Impeachment of President (Art. 61)
- 2/3rd of Total Strength of the House
Question 9: Explain the Term ‘Chancellor’s Democracy’ with example and its features
Answer: There are two types of Parliamentary System:
- West-Ministerial Type (Followed in Britain)
- Chancellor’s Democracy (Followed in Germany)
Major Difference Between West-Ministerial and Chancellor’s Democracy:
- Chancellor Post in Germany is more powerful than PM post in England
- In Germany, there is no cabinet and no collective responsibility. All policy decisions are taken by the Chancellor without any approval from ministers.
- Germany has Constructive Vote of No-Confidence. Which means, if opposition wants to take down the current government, they must have a majority to form a new government. This increases the stability of the government in Germany.
(Chancellor post in Germany is equivalent to PM Post in England)
Question 10: Why India have adopted Parliamentary Form of Government?
Answer: We have discussed the difference between Parliamentary and Presidential form of government in the above questions. Parliamentary Form of Government is less stable but still India has adopted it because:
- It was familiar form of government for India
- It is more democratic (power is not concentrated in hands of 1 person)
- It is more accountable
- More representative. So, more suitable for India’s diversity.
Question 11: Explain the Term Co-operative Federalism
Answer: Pure form of Federalism is followed in the USA and Australia. But the Indian form of federalism is a mixture of the federation and unitary form of government. The best features of both forms are taken which are suitable for India. Co-operative federalism means that there is no strict separation of powers. States and Centre will work in co-ordination/co-operation for well being of our country.
Indian form of federalism is also called as “Quasi-federal“
Question 12: Give the Difference between Formal Equality and Substantive Equality
Answers: Formal equality is a belief that, for fairness, people must be consistently or equally treated at all times. Substantive equality, which goes beyond the basics of recognizing the equality of everyone and identifies differences among groups of people (based on various factors like social equality, economic equality) with the long-term goal of betterment (it does not treat unequals equally!)
Question 13: Explain the Following Terms:
- Due Process of Law
- Process Established by Law
And Tell Difference Between them with Example!
Answer: ‘Due Process of Law’ is Also called as ‘Natural Justice‘. It means that the law has to be just, fair and reasonable and can be changed if the intent behind its legislation was not fair.
‘In a procedure established by Law’ once the law is made, it cannot be changed even if it is not fair, unjust or not reasonable.
In India, we follow due process of law. Which means judiciary can challenge wisdom of legislature if particular law is unfair and unjust.
(This is seen many times in India- Judicial activism)